Gastroduodenal injury and repair: novel targets for therapeutic intervention
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review Although the mucosal barrier serves as a primary interface between the environment and host, little is understood about the repair of acute, superficial lesions or deeper, persistent lesions that if not healed, can be the site of increased permeability to luminal antigens, inflammation and/or neoplasia development. Recent findings Recent studies have focused on focal adhesion kinase, which regulates controlled matrix adhesion during restitution after superficial injury. Actin polymerization regulates cell migration and the importance of actin-related proteins was also highlig ..read more
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Updates in functional dyspepsia and bloating
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review Functional dyspepsia and bloating are common gastrointestinal conditions that frequently lead to gastroenterology referral. Both disorders have a significant negative impact on patients’ quality of life and the healthcare system. The purpose of this review is to highlight important new findings in the cause, pathophysiology and treatment of these two disorders. Recent findings Confocal laser endomicroscopy identified changes in epithelial barrier structure and function, providing important insights into the development of functional dyspepsia symptoms when combined with new o ..read more
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Endobariatrics: well past infancy and maturing rapidly
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review This review summarizes the key developments with regard to FDA-approved endoscopic bariatric metabolic therapies (EBMTs) in the last 2 years. Recent findings The prevalence of obesity has increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and obesity worsens COVID-19 related outcomes. Several studies have confirmed the safety and short-term efficacy of intragastric balloons (IGBs). In the short-term IGBs may improve steatosis and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and improve quality of life and mental health. Unfortunately weight loss from these tem ..read more
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Management of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with autoimmune gastritis
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review Autoimmune gastritis is characterized by atrophy of acid secreting parietal cells resulting in achlorhydria. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms are common in autoimmune gastritis and frequently result in prescriptions for acid suppressant medications despite the inability of the stomach to secrete acid. Evidence-based recommendations for management of gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis are lacking. Recent findings The most common symptoms in patients with autoimmune gastritis are dyspepsia, heartburn, and regurgitation. Gastroesophageal reflux should be confirmed ..read more
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Gastric submucosal mass lesions
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review Gastric submucosal mass lesions are a collection of tumours that arise in the stomach and are deep to the mucosal layer. Distinct from gastric epithelial carcinomas, these tumours are generally more indolent. They are often found incidentally on upper endoscopy. Most often they present as smooth protuberant masses covered by normal intact gastric mucosa. The majority are asymptomatic. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is frequently employed to further characterize the lesions. EUS can be diagnostic of some lesions, such as lipomas, and can be used to guide fine needle aspiration to ..read more
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Diet and carcinogenesis of gastric cancer
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review Several recent studies have corroborated a strong association between diet and gastric cancer risk; investigators have also identified dietary factors that protect against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the literature on this topic and guides future research directions. Recent findings High-salt intake disrupts the gastric mucosal defense barrier, promoting Helicobacter pylori colonization and penetration of other carcinogenic compounds. Processed foods, processed meats, red meat, alcohol, foods with high dietary fat, and dietary cholesterol increase the risk of gastr ..read more
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The vermiform cecal appendix, expendable or essential? A narrative review
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review The vermiform cecal appendix is a small thin pouch-like tube of intestinal tissue situated in the lower right abdomen. It is attached at the junction of the large intestine between the ascending colon and small intestine. Historically, the appendix has been labeled redundant with no significant function, a remnant of evolution. This idea was thought to represent a function that may have been critical for survival that became nonsignificant over time. Evolutionary biologists deemed it to be a vestigial organ that early in human evolution was a dedicated organ that was useful a ..read more
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Editorial: Stomach and duodenum: what is current in 2022?
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
No abstract available ..read more
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Gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19: the long and the short of it
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review A large and growing number of patients have persistent gastrointestinal symptoms that they attribute to COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, replicates within the gut and acute COVID-19 is associated with alteration of the gut microbiome. This article reviews recent observational data related to gastrointestinal symptoms in ‘long COVID’ and discusses pathophysiologic mechanisms that might explain persistent post-COVID gastrointestinal symptoms. Recent findings Gastrointestinal symptoms are present in half of the patients with acute COVID-19, persist 6 months ..read more
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Considerations when starting patients on multiple biologics and small molecules
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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2M ago
Purpose of review Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex disease that poses significant economic, and psychological burden on patients. Despite advent of newer biologics and small molecules targeting different aspects of immunopathogenesis, there appears to be a plateau in clinical outcomes. In this review we discuss the role of multiple biologics, existing evidence and various considerations when prescribing multiple biologics. Recent findings Recent scientific advances helped to unravel the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and newer cytokines have been identified which can ..read more
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