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Genetics Society of America
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2y ago
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Background Selection Does Not Mimic the Patterns of Genetic Diversity Produced by Selective Sweeps [Population and Evolutionary Genetics]
Genetics Society of America
by Schrider, D. R.
3y ago
It is increasingly evident that natural selection plays a prominent role in shaping patterns of diversity across the genome. The most commonly studied modes of natural selection are positive selection and negative selection, which refer to directional selection for and against derived mutations, respectively. Positive selection can result in hitchhiking events, in which a beneficial allele rapidly replaces all others in the population, creating a valley of diversity around the selected site along with characteristic skews in allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium among linked neutral po ..read more
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A Noncanonical Hippo Pathway Regulates Spindle Disassembly and Cytokinesis During Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Cellular Genetics]
Genetics Society of America
by Paulissen, S. M., Hunt, C. A., Seitz, B. C., Slubowski, C. J., Yu, Y., Mucelli, X., Truong, D., Wallis, Z., Nguyen, H. T., Newman-Toledo, S., Neiman, A. M., Huang, L. S.
3y ago
Meiosis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to create haploid yeast spores from a diploid mother cell. During meiosis II, cytokinesis occurs by closure of the prospore membrane, a membrane that initiates at the spindle pole body and grows to surround each of the haploid meiotic products. Timely prospore membrane closure requires SPS1, which encodes an STE20 family GCKIII kinase. To identify genes that may activate SPS1, we utilized a histone phosphorylation defect of sps1 mutants to screen for genes with a similar phenotype and found that cdc15 shared this phenotype. CDC15 en ..read more
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Chromosome-Scale Assembly of the Bread Wheat Genome Reveals Thousands of Additional Gene Copies [Genome and Systems Biology]
Genetics Society of America
by Alonge, M., Shumate, A., Puiu, D., Zimin, A. V., Salzberg, S. L.
3y ago
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major food crop and an important plant system for agricultural genetics research. However, due to the complexity and size of its allohexaploid genome, genomic resources are limited compared to other major crops. The IWGSC recently published a reference genome and associated annotation (IWGSC CS v1.0, Chinese Spring) that has been widely adopted and utilized by the wheat community. Although this reference assembly represents all three wheat subgenomes at chromosome-scale, it was derived from short reads, and thus is missing a substantial portion of the expec ..read more
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A Conserved Role for Vezatin Proteins in Cargo-Specific Regulation of Retrograde Axonal Transport [Cellular Genetics]
Genetics Society of America
by Spinner, M. A., Pinter, K., Drerup, C. M., Herman, T. G.
3y ago
Active transport of organelles within axons is critical for neuronal health. Retrograde axonal transport, in particular, relays neurotrophic signals received by axon terminals to the nucleus and circulates new material among en passant synapses. A single motor protein complex, cytoplasmic dynein, is responsible for nearly all retrograde transport within axons: its linkage to and transport of diverse cargos is achieved by cargo-specific regulators. Here, we identify Vezatin as a conserved regulator of retrograde axonal transport. Vertebrate Vezatin (Vezt) is required for the maturation and main ..read more
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Experimental Evolution of Bacillus subtilis Reveals the Evolutionary Dynamics of Horizontal Gene Transfer and Suggests Adaptive and Neutral Effects [Population and Evolutionary Genetics]
Genetics Society of America
by Slomka, S., Francoise, I., Hornung, G., Asraf, O., Biniashvili, T., Pilpel, Y., Dahan, O.
3y ago
Tracing evolutionary processes that lead to fixation of genomic variation in wild bacterial populations is a prime challenge in molecular evolution. In particular, the relative contribution of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) vs. de novo mutations during adaptation to a new environment is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the dynamics of HGT and its effect on adaptation, we subjected several populations of competent Bacillus subtilis to a serial dilution evolution on a high-salt-containing medium, either with or without foreign DNA from diverse pre-adapted or naturally salt to ..read more
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Motto: Representing Motifs in Consensus Sequences with Minimum Information Loss [Methods, Technology, [amp ] Resources]
Genetics Society of America
by Wang, M., Wang, D., Zhang, K., Ngo, V., Fan, S., Wang, W.
3y ago
Sequence analysis frequently requires intuitive understanding and convenient representation of motifs. Typically, motifs are represented as position weight matrices (PWMs) and visualized using sequence logos. However, in many scenarios, in order to interpret the motif information or search for motif matches, it is compact and sufficient to represent motifs by wildcard-style consensus sequences (such as [GC][AT]GATAAG[GAC]). Based on mutual information theory and Jensen-Shannon divergence, we propose a mathematical framework to minimize the information loss in converting PWMs to consensus seque ..read more
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Meiotic Double-Strand Break Processing and Crossover Patterning Are Regulated in a Sex-Specific Manner by BRCA1-BARD1 in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics of Sex]
Genetics Society of America
by Li, Q., Hariri, S., Engebrecht, J.
3y ago
Meiosis is regulated in a sex-specific manner to produce two distinct gametes, sperm and oocytes, for sexual reproduction. To determine how meiotic recombination is regulated in spermatogenesis, we analyzed the meiotic phenotypes of mutants in the tumor suppressor E3 ubiquitin ligase BRC-1-BRD-1 complex in Caenorhabditis elegans male meiosis. Unlike in mammals, this complex is not required for meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, the process whereby hemizygous sex chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced. Interestingly, brc-1 and brd-1 mutants show meiotic recombination phenotypes that are l ..read more
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How Not To Be in the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time: An Education Primer for Use with "Deposition of Centromeric Histone H3 Variant CENP-A/Cse4 into Chromatin Is Facilitated by Its C-Terminal Sumoylation" [Primer]
Genetics Society of America
by Thu, Y. M.
3y ago
Recent work by Kentaro Ohkuni and colleagues exemplifies how a series of molecular mechanisms contribute to a cellular outcome—equal distribution of chromosomes. Failure to maintain structural and numerical integrity of chromosomes is one contributing factor in genetic diseases such as cancer. Specifically, the authors investigated molecular events surrounding centromeric histone H3 variant Cse4 deposition—a process important for chromosome segregation, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. This study illustrates an example of a post-translational modification—sumoylation—regulat ..read more
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Behavioral States [Neurobiology and Behavior]
Genetics Society of America
by Flavell, S. W., Raizen, D. M., You, Y.-J.
3y ago
Caenorhabditis elegans’ behavioral states, like those of other animals, are shaped by its immediate environment, its past experiences, and by internal factors. We here review the literature on C. elegans behavioral states and their regulation. We discuss dwelling and roaming, local and global search, mate finding, sleep, and the interaction between internal metabolic states and behavior ..read more
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