What are Norms, or Social Norms?
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2w ago
First of all, when we speak of “norms” in sociology, we normally refer to “social norms”. In these notes, we will briefly sketch the meaning, nature, and importance of social norms. Now, norms, or social norms, can be broadly construed as a set of certain behaviors, thoughts, or values that a majority of people share within the same society. In other words, social norms are the values of manners, civility, and customary tradition expressed through actions of society. It must be noted that social norms differ from rules or laws in the sense that the former are not compulsory. Social norms ..read more
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Eliade’s The Sacred and the Profane: Key Concepts
PHILO-notes - Learn Philosophy Online!
by admin
2M ago
Mircea Eliade’s The Sacred and the Profane: Key Concepts In this lecture notes, I will present the overall idea and key concepts of Eliade’s seminal work titled, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. But before we dive into the discussion, let me talk very briefly about Eliade’s background and famous works. Mircea Eliade was born in Romania in 1907. He was one of the most influential scholars of comparative religion in the twentieth century. Eliade loves to study ancient religious practices, which he called archaic religion, and spent his life promoting the field of the history o ..read more
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What is Mimesis?
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by admin
2M ago
What is Mimesis? Broadly construed, mimesis is a term used in philosophy and literary criticism, which describes the process of imitation or mimicry through which artists portray and interpret the world. It must be noted, however, that mimesis is not a literary device or technique, but rather a way of thinking about a work of art. The word “mimesis” is derived from the ancient Greek word mimeisthai, which means “to imitate” or “to represent”, and which itself comes from mimos, meaning “mime”. But the continued use and definition of mimesis today is due to the philosophers Plato and A ..read more
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What is Action Painting?
PHILO-notes - Learn Philosophy Online!
by admin
2M ago
What is Action Painting? Action painting is a kind of art that is direct, instinctual, and highly dynamic. It involves the spontaneous application of vigorous, sweeping brushstrokes and the chance effects of dripping and spilling paint onto the canvas. The term “action painting” was coined by the American art critic Harold Rosenberg to characterize the work of a group of American Abstract Expressionists who utilized the method from about 1950. Action painting is distinguished from the carefully preconceived work of the “abstract imagists” and “color-field” pa ..read more
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What is Critical Theory?
PHILO-notes - Learn Philosophy Online!
by admin
2M ago
What is Critical Theory? The term critical theory can be used quite loosely, as in the present dictionary, to refer to a whole range of theories which take a critical view of society and the human sciences or which seek to explain the emergence of their objects of knowledge. Much more specifically, it also refers to the major strand in the work of the Frankfurt School, and particularly to the writings of Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, and lately Axel Honneth and Jürgen Habermas. Horkheimer’s inaugural address to the Institut for Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Rese ..read more
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What is Art?
PHILO-notes - Learn Philosophy Online!
by admin
2M ago
What is Art? Broadly construed, art is the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power. Art, therefore, is understood as a highly diverse range of human activities engaged in creating visual, auditory, or performed artifacts, which are commonly called as “artworks”, that express the author’s imaginative or technical skill, and, as already intimated above, are intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. The three cla ..read more
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What is Impressionism?
PHILO-notes - Learn Philosophy Online!
by admin
2M ago
What is Impressionism? Impressionism is one of the fundamental components for the progression from old nineteenth century to modern twentieth century art. It is important to note that without this radical shift in popularity from the wealth of institutionalized art to the free, independent exhibitions of the Impressionists, there would be no Post-Impressionist Van Gogh, Rousseau or Cézanne, but instead they would be replaced by more repetitive traditional paintings like that of Bouguereau. As we can see, impressionism is a radical departure from traditio ..read more
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What is Symbolism?
PHILO-notes - Learn Philosophy Online!
by admin
2M ago
What is Symbolism? From the word “symbol”, which is understood as something that stands for or suggests something else, symbolism can be broadly construed as the “idea” that things represent other things. Let’s take, for example, the color red. When we look at the color red, we can conclude it represents not only the color red, but something beyond it, like passion, love, or devotion. The color red can also represent blood. It can also mean “stop” when your approach a traffic light. In other words, the color red can mean anything you want it to mean. In the field of literary art, symbolism is ..read more
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What is Minimalism?
PHILO-notes - Learn Philosophy Online!
by admin
2M ago
What is Minimalism? Minimalism is an extreme form of abstract art that originated in New York City, USA in the 1960s and typified by artworks composed of simple geometric shapes based on the square and the rectangle. It is important to note that minimal art is the culmination of reductionist tendencies in modern art that first surfaced in the 1913 composition by the Russian painter Kasimir Malevich of a black square on a white ground. Minimalism or minimalist art can be seen as extending the abstract idea that art should have its own reality and not be an imitatio ..read more
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What is Expressionism?
PHILO-notes - Learn Philosophy Online!
by admin
2M ago
What is Expressionism? Expressionism is a modernist movement notably in painting, film and literature that originated and developed in Germany before and after the First World War. This artistic tendency can be considered as a form of resistance to bourgeois culture. The defining characteristic of this artistic tendency is the attempt of the artist to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. In art history, the term “Expressionism” refers to the work of Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and others associat ..read more
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