Dicumyl Peroxide Case Study – The Proper Application of Open Cell Test Methodology
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
1M ago
Dicumyl peroxide is a commonly employed dialkyl peroxide used as a high temperature crosslinker in rubber and plastics applications [1]. A common use of dicumyl peroxide includes initiation of the polymerization of ethylene to produce low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Dicumyl peroxide is known to thermally decompose to acetophenone (high boiling liquid) and methyl radicals (gas), and the system has been extensively studied [2-5]. In terms of vent sizing, the thermal decomposition of dicumyl peroxide is classified as a gassy system otherwise known as a non-tempered gas generating reaction. The r ..read more
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FATE Facility Modeling Software
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
1M ago
FATE™ (Facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) is a flexible, fast-running code developed and maintained by Fauske and Associates under an ASME NQA-1 compliant QA program. It is a specialized tool that is commercially available, but it is primarily used to support our related safety consulting services. FATE has advanced capabilities to model heat and mass transfer, fluid behavior, and aerosol behavior in a variety of applications for the nuclear, chemical, and manufacturing sectors. FATE aerosol and transport models are universal and not restricted to nuclear or chemical release. This ..read more
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Introducing UN Test 0.3 Oxidizing Solids
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
2M ago
Oxidizing Solids (Combustible Dust Hazard) continued on page 4 Oxidizing substances increase the combustion capabilities of nearby materials, usually by acting as a more reactive oxygen source than the ambient oxygen in the air. The oxidative strength of an oxidizer can vary wildly based on its composition and, especially for solids, factors like particle size and moisture content. As such, classifying oxidizers based on their relative oxidative strength is important for determining the proper safety measures when storing, shipping, and handling oxidizers. The UN Model Regulations assign Divis ..read more
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The Potential Hazards of Hydrogen
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
4M ago
Growing interest in hydrogen builds on the recognition that clean hydrogen can play a crucial role in global decarbonization. Currently 40% of all carbon dioxide emissions come from power plants burning fossil fuels to generate energy. Other relatively high pollution sectors include transportation and industrial factories. Consumption of hydrogen for energy produces only water, and hydrogen has a high energy density by mass, which makes it an interesting low carbon alternative. The demand for hydrogen has increased threefold since 1975 and is expected to continue this trajectory, with the dema ..read more
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What is an Onset Temperature, and How Should I Use it to Better Understand My Reactive Hazards?
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
6M ago
Onset temperature is the lowest temperature at which a chemical reaction is occurring at a measurable rate. Unlike certain flammability related quantities, chemical reactions are essentially always occurring, and there is still non-zero rate of reaction even at low temperatures where measurement is not possible. In other words, there is not a temperature “switch” that initiates a reaction. Therefore, the reported onset temperature is highly dependent on the instrument sensitivity, the procedure utilized for collecting the data (i.e. the time-temperature history of the material), the type of in ..read more
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Open vs. Closed System Adiabatic Calorimetry: What Are The Differences?
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
6M ago
Adiabatic calorimetry is a powerful tool that can be used to support plant safety. A calorimeter is a device that is used to measure the amount of heat associated with chemical or physical processes. An adiabatic calorimeter is designed to ensure that there is no heat transferred between the system and its surroundings. Therefore, an adiabatic calorimeter is designed so that the exothermic heat produced by a reaction directly goes to increasing the temperature of the material. As the temperature increases, the rate of reaction often exponentially increases. On a large plant scale, the availabl ..read more
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Who, What, Where, When & Why of Process Hazards Analysis | Fauske
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
7M ago
  Why perform a risk analysis? Risk Analysis goes by many names and many acronyms. While the techniques differ by industry or application (see Tables 1 and 2), all are set to accomplish the same goal: to identify hazards within a process. Some industries have regulatory requirements to perform risk assessments. Others are prompted by insurers or another Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) or have been initiated by internal corporate objectives. The results of a risk analysis can be used to justify process improvements. Additionally, identifying and mitigating hazardous scenarios th ..read more
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The Impact of Physical Properties for Reactive and Nonreactive Emergency Relief System Design – Part 1
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
7M ago
When designing a safe process, our goal is to reduce risk by implementing layers of safeguards. One example of a risk in processing is a loss of containment, and a potential cause of this is an unexpected buildup of pressure. Emergency relief systems (ERS) are a safeguard used to mitigate overpressure scenarios to protect people, the environment, and infrastructure. If these systems are not adequately sized, installed, or maintained, catastrophic incidents can occur. We typically categorize potential sources of overpressure as either reactive or nonreactive, and it is important to note that re ..read more
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Characterizing Combustible Dusts for Explosion Prevention: Influence of Ignition Source and Particle Size
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by Fauske & Associates
7M ago
Dust is found somewhere in almost every process, and yet very few understand how dangerous it can be! A study conducted by Powder Bulk & Solids showed that between 2016 and 2020 there were an average of 31.8 dust explosions per year. Many factors influence the combustibility of dust such as particle size and moisture content, and it is also highly situational with factors such as confinement and dispersion impacting the likelihood for a dust to explode. It may be surprising how many types of dust can be explosive if the right conditions are met: these include wood, metals, food products, a ..read more
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How to Scale-up Chemical Reactions/ Runaway Reactions in a Safer Way
Fauske & Associates, LLC Blog
by The Fauske Team
9M ago
A General Strategy for the Safer Scale-Up of Batch and Semi-Batch Reaction Thermal runaway incidents continue to occur in batch production facilities in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Serious incidents can result in death, injury, capital loss, and business interruptions. Despite the best efforts of the chemical/pharmaceutical industries to be responsible, a major incident casts a negative light on this industry as a whole. In order to prevent incidents from occurring there is a need for all R&D, process development, and batch production facilities to have an effective proces ..read more
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