Wi-Fi 6E Lessons
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
2d ago
Here is my latest digital course at WiFi Training. Wi-Fi 6E lessons that cover what you need to know in this new 6GHz spectrum Wi-Fi deployment. Since there are different rules for various regulatory domains (Wi-Fi Alliance page is a good place to find them), it’s a good idea to get an overview of 6GHz deployment before bringing it on to your production environment. On 23-Feb-2024, the FCC approved Standard Power (SP) operation in the USA (DA-24-166A1), completing all three modes of operations in the country. Back in 2020, LPI – Low Power Indoor was approved (FCC-20-51A1), and in late 2023, VL ..read more
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Recap of WLPC 2024 – USA
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
1M ago
It was the 10th Anniversary of this wonderful conference, and it was my 5th time attending this event in the USA. Like in past events, I arrived one week early in the USA and spent time with Chris, who made my WLPC trip memorable by flying me to Phoenix from Texas (and back). I had to teach my favorite Rockstar Wireless Analysis class in a 3-day bootcamp. We covered 6 GHz operations in great detail during this in-person class. I am sure everyone in the class had the opportunity to fill some knowledge gaps and leave with a solid understanding of Wi-Fi MAC & PHY, 6GHz operations, WPA3, Fast ..read more
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Farewell to La Trobe University
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
2M ago
After 14+ years of staying, yesterday was my last day at La Trobe University (LTU). When I joined the University back in 2009, I had to support a small team in managing their Cisco network. In a couple of years, I decided to learn Cisco Wi-Fi, and that marked the birth of my blog in 2012. The University provided me with so much flexibility and allowed me to explore my passions. Teaching and mentoring are areas where I found the most satisfaction. During my time at LTU, I encouraged my entire team to acquire Wi-Fi skills to manage large-scale enterprise Wi-Fi. I mentored them to begin their CW ..read more
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WLPC Phoenix 2024
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
4M ago
Today marks the opening of registration for WLPC 2024 in Phoenix,(be quick, the conference will sell out quickly) celebrating the 10th anniversary of this wonderful conference. I’m thrilled to be a part of it and will be my 5th time in this event in USA! I will be teaching my favorite class, the “Rockstar Wireless Analysis” bootcamp, at this event. I’ve updated my materials to cover the latest in Wi-Fi 6E. Who will join me this time to learn more about Wi-Fi frame analysis and unlock the secrets of Wi-Fi 6E? Here are my wonderful students in my bootcamp at WLPC 2023 in Prague. Here are the p ..read more
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6GHz Device Classes
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
5M ago
In this post, we will look at 6GHz device classes. There are 7 device classes defined for 6GHz Wi-Fi operation, broadly falling into 3 categories: Access Points Subordinate devices (Indoor Wi-Fi mesh extender) Client devices Four indoor device types are defined under Phase 1 (LPI), and 3 outdoor-operated device types are defined under Phase 2 (AFC). 1. Low Power Indoor AP (6ID) These are indoor APs that have to follow the guidelines given below Limited to indoor locations Have integrated antenna Cannot be used in a weatherized enclosure Prohibited on oil platforms, cars, trains, boats, and ..read more
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Recap of WLPC Prague – 2023
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
5M ago
Hello from Prague Airport! I’m wrapping up a fantastic week at the WCPC 2023 Europe event. I arrived on October 20th and taught a 3-day boot camp from the 22nd to the 24th, just before the main conference started on October 25th. In my Rocksar Wireless Analysis class, 8 students (@HerrNilsson is missing in the photo) joined me as we delved deeply into Wi-Fi frame analysis, with hands-on lab exercises to reinforce their learning. The feedback from the students has been overwhelmingly positive, and I couldn’t be happier with how the course went. Whenever I attend this conference, I get to conne ..read more
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6GHz AP Discovery – Part 5
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
6M ago
In our ongoing AP Discovery series, we’ve examined various ‘in-band discovery’ methods outlined below: FILS (Fast Initial Link Setup) UPR (Unsolicited Probe Responses ) PSC (Preferred Scanning Channel) In this post, we will explore the ‘out-of-band discovery’ method named “RNR – Reduced Neighbor Report“. Reduced Neighbor Report (RNR) introduced with IEEE-802.11k amendment where client STA can request AP to provide neighborhood APs in order to faster discovery (rather actively scan all channels). Our test topology evolved a bit over time, During the last post, I created a total of 9 WLANs in ..read more
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Multiple BSSID (MBSSID)
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
6M ago
If you’ve worked with Wi-Fi (2.4/5.0GHz), it’s not recommended to create too many SSIDs. This is because it increases the management overhead (which uses up valuable airtime for Beaconing) and can reduce client data transmission throughput. However, with the introduction of 6 GHz, they’ve tackled this problem by allowing you to advertise multiple SSIDs using a single beacon frame. This capability is provided by an Information Element called “Multiple BSSID” within a beacon frame. The diagram below summarizes this concept: In this post, we will explore the MBSSID feature. We used the same test ..read more
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6GHz AP Discovery – Part 4
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
6M ago
In this post, we will explore PSC – Preferred Scanning Channel, the only active discovery mechanism available in 6GHz. This is another “In-band Discovery” mechanism where 6GHz STA can find 6GHz AP on the same band operation. The diagram below displays the 6GHz channel allocation, comprising 59 channels each with a 20MHz width. If a 6GHz client had to probe all these individual channels, it could consume a significant amount of time to discover all 59 channels. Instead of that, we designate 15 channels as PSC (Preferred Scanning Channels). By default, it’s assumed that the AP will be on an 80MH ..read more
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6GHz AP Discovery – Part 3
mrn-cciew | My CCIE Wireless Journey & More.....
by nayarasi
6M ago
In this post, we’ll explore UPR- Unsolicited Probe Response, another “In-band Discovery” method utilized in the 6GHz operation. It’s similar to the FILS Discovery method. Instead of sending short FILS discovery frames, AP sends a Probe Response frame roughly every 20ms unsolicitedly (i.e. without waiting for clients’ Probe Request frames). Because it is a Probe Response frame, it includes nearly all the information fields found in the Beacon frame. This means that the management overhead will be much higher with this method compared to FILS. It’s almost as if Beacons are sent every 20ms In le ..read more
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