Transcranial electrical stimulation: How can a simple conductor orchestrate complex brain activity?
PLOS Biology
by Matthew R. Krause, Pedro G. Vieira, Christopher C. Pack
1h ago
by Matthew R. Krause, Pedro G. Vieira, Christopher C. Pack Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is one of the oldest and yet least understood forms of brain stimulation. The idea that a weak electrical stimulus, applied outside the head, can meaningfully affect neural activity is often regarded as mysterious. Here, we argue that the direct effects of tES are not so mysterious: Extensive data from a wide range of model systems shows it has appreciable effects on the activity of individual neurons. Instead, the real mysteries are how tES interacts with the brain’s own activity and how these ..read more
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PLOS Biology at 20: Ain’t no mountain high enough
PLOS Biology
by Nonia Pariente, on behalf of the PLOS Biology staff editors
3d ago
by Nonia Pariente, on behalf of the PLOS Biology staff editors PLOS began publishing influential open access science in 2003. As PLOS Biology enters its third decade, we reflect on our mission, what has changed, what remains to be done and our wishes for the future. As PLOS Biology enters its third decade, we reflect on our mission, what has changed, what remains to be done and our wishes for the future ..read more
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FMRP activity and control of Csw/SHP2 translation regulate MAPK-dependent synaptic transmission
PLOS Biology
by Shannon N. Leahy, Chunzhu Song, Dominic J. Vita, Kendal Broadie
4d ago
by Shannon N. Leahy, Chunzhu Song, Dominic J. Vita, Kendal Broadie Noonan syndrome (NS) and NS with multiple lentigines (NSML) cognitive dysfunction are linked to SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) gain-of-function (GoF) and loss-of-function (LoF), respectively. In Drosophila disease models, we find both SHP2 mutations from human patients and corkscrew (csw) homolog LoF/GoF elevate glutamatergic transmission. Cell-targeted RNAi and neurotransmitter release analyses reveal a presynaptic requirement. Consistently, all mutants exhibit reduced synaptic depression during hi ..read more
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Viral infection in the ocean—A journey across scales
PLOS Biology
by Flora Vincent, Assaf Vardi
4d ago
by Flora Vincent, Assaf Vardi Viruses are the most abundant biological entity in the ocean and infect a wide range of microbial life across bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In this essay, we take a journey across several orders of magnitude in the scales of biological organization, time, and space of host–virus interactions in the ocean, aiming to shed light on their ecological relevance. We start from viruses infecting microbial host cells by delivering their genetic material in seconds across nanometer-size membranes, which highjack their host’s metabolism in a few minutes to hours, leadin ..read more
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The dawn of relaxed phylogenetics
PLOS Biology
by Jacob L. Steenwyk, Antonis Rokas
5d ago
by Jacob L. Steenwyk, Antonis Rokas Tracing the history of evolution across time is a primary goal of evolutionary biology. The 2006 publication of a landmark study on relaxed phylogenetics in PLOS Biology enabled biologists to shed light on evolution’s tempo and shaped the future of evolutionary studies. In 2006, a landmark study on relaxed phylogenetics was published in PLOS Biology. This Perspective discusses how relaxed phylogenetics has influenced the field of evolutionary biology by enabling researchers to investigate evolution’s tempo ..read more
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A rising tide of parasite transcriptomics propels pathogen biology
PLOS Biology
by Manoj T. Duraisingh, Marc-Jan Gubbels, Kourosh Zarringhalam
5d ago
by Manoj T. Duraisingh, Marc-Jan Gubbels, Kourosh Zarringhalam Twenty years ago, the first transcriptome of the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was published in PLOS Biology. Since then, transcriptomics studies have transformed the study of parasite biology. Twenty years ago, the first transcriptome of the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was published in PLOS Biology. This Perspective looks at how transcriptomics studies have transformed the study of parasite biology in the years following i ..read more
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Twelve-hour rhythms in transcript expression within the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are altered in schizophrenia
PLOS Biology
by Madeline R. Scott, Wei Zong, Kyle D. Ketchesin, Marianne L. Seney, George C. Tseng, Bokai Zhu, Colleen A. McClung
6d ago
by Madeline R. Scott, Wei Zong, Kyle D. Ketchesin, Marianne L. Seney, George C. Tseng, Bokai Zhu, Colleen A. McClung Twelve-hour (12 h) ultradian rhythms are a well-known phenomenon in coastal marine organisms. While 12 h cycles are observed in human behavior and physiology, no study has measured 12 h rhythms in the human brain. Here, we identify 12 h rhythms in transcripts that either peak at sleep/wake transitions (approximately 9 AM/PM) or static times (approximately 3 PM/AM) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in cognition. Subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) lose 12 h rh ..read more
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People with more extreme attitudes towards science have self-confidence in their understanding of science, even if this is not justified
PLOS Biology
by Cristina Fonseca, Jonathan Pettitt, Alison Woollard, Adam Rutherford, Wendy Bickmore, Anne Ferguson-Smith, Laurence D. Hurst
6d ago
by Cristina Fonseca, Jonathan Pettitt, Alison Woollard, Adam Rutherford, Wendy Bickmore, Anne Ferguson-Smith, Laurence D. Hurst People differ greatly in their attitudes towards well-evidenced science. What characterises this variation? Here, we consider this issue in the context of genetics and allied sciences. While most prior research has focused on the relationship between attitude to science and what people know about it, recent evidence suggests that individuals with strongly negative attitudes towards specific genetic technologies (genetic modification (GM) technology and vaccines) commo ..read more
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Towards a great ape dictionary: Inexperienced humans understand common nonhuman ape gestures
PLOS Biology
by Kirsty E. Graham, Catherine Hobaiter
6d ago
by Kirsty E. Graham, Catherine Hobaiter In the comparative study of human and nonhuman communication, ape gesturing provided the first demonstrations of flexible, intentional communication outside human language. Rich repertoires of these gestures have been described in all ape species, bar one: us. Given that the majority of great ape gestural signals are shared, and their form appears biologically inherited, this creates a conundrum: Where did the ape gestures go in human communication? Here, we test human recognition and understanding of 10 of the most frequently used ape gestures. We crowd ..read more
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Community consensus on core open science practices to monitor in biomedicine
PLOS Biology
by Kelly D. Cobey, Stefanie Haustein, Jamie Brehaut, Ulrich Dirnagl, Delwen L. Franzen, Lars G. Hemkens, Justin Presseau, Nico Riedel, Daniel Strech, Juan Pablo Alperin, Rodrigo Costas, Emily S. Sena, Thed van Leeuwen, Clare L. Ardern, Isabel O. L. Bacellar, Nancy Camack, Marcos Britto Correa, Roberto Buccione, Maximiliano Sergio Cenci, Dean A. Fergusson, Cassandra Gould van Praag, Michael M. Hoffman, Renata Moraes Bielemann, Ugo Moschini, Mauro Paschetta, Valentina Pasquale, Valeria E. Rac, Dylan Roskams-Edris, Hermann M. Schatzl, Jo Anne Stratton, David Moher
6d ago
by Kelly D. Cobey, Stefanie Haustein, Jamie Brehaut, Ulrich Dirnagl, Delwen L. Franzen, Lars G. Hemkens, Justin Presseau, Nico Riedel, Daniel Strech, Juan Pablo Alperin, Rodrigo Costas, Emily S. Sena, Thed van Leeuwen, Clare L. Ardern, Isabel O. L. Bacellar, Nancy Camack, Marcos Britto Correa, Roberto Buccione, Maximiliano Sergio Cenci, Dean A. Fergusson, Cassandra Gould van Praag, Michael M. Hoffman, Renata Moraes Bielemann, Ugo Moschini, Mauro Paschetta, Valentina Pasquale, Valeria E. Rac, Dylan Roskams-Edris, Hermann M. Schatzl, Jo Anne Stratton, David Moher The state of open science needs ..read more
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