Cold-raised fruit flies are harder to paralyze
Journal of Experimental Biology
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Plasticity in Na + /K + -ATPase thermal kinetics drives variation in the temperature of cold-induced neural shutdown of adult Drosophila melanogaster
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
ABSTRACT Most insects can acclimate to changes in their thermal environment and counteract temperature effects on neuromuscular function. At the critical thermal minimum, a spreading depolarization (SD) event silences central neurons, but the temperature at which this event occurs can be altered through acclimation. SD is triggered by an inability to maintain ion homeostasis in the extracellular space in the brain and is characterized by a rapid surge in extracellular K+ concentration, implicating ion pump and channel function. Here, we focused on the role of the Na+/K+-ATPase specifically in ..read more
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Pit viper thermography: the pit organ used by crotaline snakes to detect thermal contrast has poor spatial resolution
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
ABSTRACT Pit vipers detect infrared radiation by means of temperature contrasts created on their pit organ membranes. Signals from pit organs integrate with visual signals in the optic tectum, leading to the conjecture that the facial pits operate as an extension of the visual system. Because similar mechanisms underlie thermal imaging technology, imagery from thermal cameras is often used to infer how pit vipers perceive their environment. However, pit organs lack a focusing mechanism, and biophysical models predict that pit organs should have poor spatial resolution compared with thermal ima ..read more
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Prior parental experience attenuates hormonal stress responses and alters hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors in biparental rock doves
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
ABSTRACT In the face of challenges, animals must balance investments in reproductive effort versus their own survival. Physiologically, this trade-off may be mediated by glucocorticoid release by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and prolactin release from the pituitary to maintain parental care. The degree to which animals react to and recover from stressors likely affects maintenance of parental behavior and, ultimately, fitness. However, less is known about how gaining parental experience may alter hormonal stress responses and their underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. To address th ..read more
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Pit viper heat pits don't have good resolution
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
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Kinematic and hydrodynamic analyses of turning manoeuvres in penguins: body banking and wing upstroke generate centripetal force
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
ABSTRACT Penguins perform lift-based swimming by flapping their wings. Previous kinematic and hydrodynamic studies have revealed the basics of wing motion and force generation in penguins. Although these studies have focused on steady forward swimming, the mechanism of turning manoeuvres is not well understood. In this study, we examined the horizontal turning of penguins via 3D motion analysis and quasi-steady hydrodynamic analysis. Free swimming of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) at an aquarium was recorded, and body and wing kinematics were analysed. In addition, quasi-steady calculation ..read more
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The contraction–expansion behaviour in the demosponge Tethya wilhelma is light controlled and follows a diurnal rhythm
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
ABSTRACT Sponges (phylum Porifera) are metazoans which lack muscles and nerve cells, yet perform coordinated behaviours such as whole-body contractions. Previous studies indicate diurnal variability in both the number of contractions and the expression of circadian clock genes. Here, we show that diurnal patterns are present in the contraction–expansion behaviour of the demosponge Tethya wilhelma, by using infrared videography and a simulated night/day cycle including sunrise and sunset mimics. In addition, we show that this behaviour is at least strongly influenced by ambient light intensity ..read more
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The acute phase response in bats ( Carollia perspicillata ) varies with time and dose of the immune challenge
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
ABSTRACT The acute phase response (APR) is a core component of the innate immune response and represents the first line of immune defense used in response to infections. Although several studies with vertebrates reported fever, a decrease in food intake and body mass, and an increase in neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and total white blood cell count after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inoculation, there was great variability in the magnitude of these responses. Some of these differences might reflect, to some extent, differences in the time of endotoxin inoculation (during active or rest periods) and ..read more
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Visual signals in the wing display of a tephritid fly deter jumping spider attacks
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
ABSTRACT Visual animal communication, whether to the same or to other species, is largely conducted through dynamic and colourful signals. For a signal to be effective, the signaller must capture and retain the attention of the receiver. Signal efficacy is also dependent on the sensory limitations of the receiver. However, most signalling studies consider movement and colour separately, resulting in a partial understanding of the signal in question. We explored the structure and function of predator–prey signalling in the jumping spider–tephritid fly system, where the prey performs a wing wavi ..read more
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Mexican fruit flies wave for distraction
Journal of Experimental Biology
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1M ago
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